Monday, July 21, 2008

Midterm Exam

Midterm Exam will be due at beginning of class on Wednesday!

Directions: Research an Artist either from the text or from the blog postings. Find at least two sources other than text either online or books. Choose at least one work of art and write a detailed reflection. Please include at least one link to an image of the work or works that you decide to write about and cite sources with links if found online at the bottom of your post. The last paragraph should contain your opinion/reflection of the work.

*hint... some things to include in your reflection: background info on artist, context (what factors played a role in the creation of this work?), content (what is the meaning?), line, space, color, value (what is this work worth?)


tparish22 said...

When looking at several different modern artists there was one that immediately caught my eye. Stuart Davis has many influences not only from his parents and up bringing but also people that he studied under later on in life. Just like any other person, our influences help decide how we go about doing different things and in Davis’s instance how he painted. Now I will show you how the influences of Davis’s life impacted him and possibly depict what he was showing us when he painted Visa.
I believe that Davis always knew that he would have some sort of impact on the art world. He father was an editor for the Philadelphia Press and his mother was a sculptor. Living in this environment Davis got an early start to the art industry and also the political world which some people think strongly influences some of his work. A man that Davis studied under is Robert Henri. Henri was part of a movement group called “The Eight”. This group was associated with the realist artistic movement. Studying under a man that was involved in this movement was a very heavy influence to Davis’s work. In fact I believe it would be safe to say that Davis could have been strongly involved in this movement as well as the traditional Eight members.
Davis was often referred to as a Cubist artist which is also closely related to modern art which is appropriate. Cubist art is a flat, two dimensional view of the plane; it usually depicts objects that are radically fragmented that have several sides showing all at once. Later in life Davis started painting strictly abstract paintings. He is most well known for his abstract still life’s and landscapes. Davis is also referred to as painting several contemporary objects such as; light bulbs, cigarettes, gas station, and several other modern scenes.
One painting that caught my attention was a oil on canvas painting done in 1951. The Visa a very colorful painting with the word “champion” boldly printed in the middle. The word “else” is printed at the bottom of the painting and is relatively small compared to the largeness of the other word. Then in the upper left hand corner the fish that symbolizes Christianity is drawn. That simple little symbol is what made the painting complete in my opinion. Some people believe that when “Champion” is displayed it could be talking about the viewer, Davis, or even someone Davis had in mind. I do not know the beliefs of Davis but I think that with fish shown where it is he could be referring to God as the “Champion”.
Now we see how Davis’s background and teachers influenced him and what he symbolizes in the art world. I believe that Davis can be shown to everyone as a mark of how someone can be influenced by some many people but still make his own original impact on a whole world.

coleen bentson said...

The Mona Lisa has always been a mystery to me. Why is this painting so famous and what attracts so many people to it? If I ever to to France to see her, what would I be looking at and what would I look for? So, that is why I did some research on it.
The famous Italian artist, Leonardo da Vinci, is the artist who painted this portrait which is widely recognized as the most famous painting in the history of art! Not much is known about his early life, but at the age of fourteen, he was apprenticed to one of the most successful artists of his day, Andrea di Cione, known as Verrocchio. Verrochio's workshop was located in the center of the intellectual area of Florence. There, Leonardo was exposed to a vast range of technical skills, drafting, chemistry, metal working, mechanics and carpentry, as well as the artistic skills of drawing, painting, sculpting and modelling from numerous famous artists associated with the workshop. During the 16th century, at the time of the Italian Renaissance, da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa with oil on a poplar panel(wood)77x53cm in Louvre,Paris. The Mona Lisa's enigmatic(puzzling)expression which seems both alluring and aloof represents a turning point in the history of portaiture. The painting is famous, in particular, for the elusive smile on the woman's face, it's mysterious quality brought about by the fact that the artist has sublty shadowed the corners of the mouth and eyes so that the nature of the smile cannot be determined. The smile is so pleasing that is seems divine rather than human. Her gaze is fixed on the observers and seems to welcome them to this silent communication. The brightly lit face is framed with various darker elements(hair, veil, shadows) so that the attraction to Mona Lisa's face is brought to even greater extent, but viewers have to stay at at distance as if she were a divine creature. The unadorned dress in which the eyes and hands have no competiton. The subdued coloring and extremely smooth nature of the painters technique found in this work, so that the brush strokes are indistinguishable. The perfect state of preservation and the fact that there is no sign of repair or overpainting is extremely rare in a panel painting of this date.
It seems now that alot of my questions have been answered and now I can look upon the Mona Lisa with appreciation and look for the mysterious qualities that have made her so famous.
Leonardo is known as a scientist and inventor, but for the past four hundred years, his enormous fame rested on his achievements as a painter. His works have been regarded as among the supreme masterpieces ever created.

Samantha Busciglio said...

French Impressionist painter, Claude Monet has always caught my attention through his work with landscapes and seascapes. He was born on November 14, 1840 in Paris France and died December 5, 1926. Monet’s work represents a sense of peacefulness, tranquility, and understanding. He studied the great works William Turner, John Constable, and Joseph Mallord. While, in Paris he became friends with some the other great impressionists’ painters of all time, Edouard Manet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Behind his beautiful masterpieces was man who suffered some loss, disappointment, and success.
In 1870, Monet married Camille Doncieux whom he painted several times. Shortly, before they were married in 1868 he attempted suicide by throwing himself into the Seine. He was facing some financial troubles and felt it would be the only way to solve them. The Monet’s had one more son in 1878, Camille died shortly there after from tuberculosis. Monet painted Camille on her death bed in 1879. Monet was devastated. He found solace in his work and would later remarry Alice Hoschede. Monet moved Alice and her 6 children along with his 2 sons to Giverny. The house was on 2 acres at had a barn, orchards, and a small garden. The barn was Monet’s painting studio. He painted some of his greatest works at Giverny.
Monet believed in the concept of painting from different points of view and at different times of the day. He liked depicting different weather and lighting conditions in his works. He really enjoyed traveling and painting all over. But, his heart always belonged to what he created at Giverny. He created a water garden on his property and it was the inspirtation for the Water –lilie series. Haystacks were his first attempt in painting the same thing but at different times during the day. By painting the same thing at different times it pushes the idea of change. A landscape or seascape looks completely different from the morning to afternoon and the afternoon to evening. I love the fact he recogized that and gave us beautiful paintings. This concept is really what he became known for. In 1911, his second wife died and in 1914 his son Jean passed way. Jean’s wife took care of Monet.
In the early 1920’s he developed the signs of cataracts. If you look at his work after being diagnosed with cataracts you see a general reddish tone and happened to be one of side affects. He under went 2 operations and the work he did before, he actually went back at repainted. I love looking at his work because sometimes I can get lost in it. When, doing research for this paper I looked at so many of his paintings. The use of colors and brush strokes are remarkble. The idea of reflection, lighting, and movement is something that stood out in his work as well. He truly understood his surroundings when painting land or sea. Painting people had a purpose with him because he captured some wonderful moments.
When, choosing my favorite work of art by Monet I always came back to
Water-lilies (1920-1926). I love everything about this painting. He used oil paints and its 219 × 602 cm. You can tell he started this piece before he had his surgeries on his eyes and completed it after. It took him 6 years to get the painting right. There is reddish tone throughout the painting. I love the colors and the way they take your eyes across canvas. I believe this was one of his last paintings before his death in 1926. You can find the painting in Musée de l'Orangerie in Paris.

ahicks said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
ahicks said...

On display today in London’s National Gallery is one of the great mysteries of the art
world: a portrait known as The Arnolfini Marriage. The portrait, measuring about 2 feet by 3 feet and executed in tempera and oil on wood, was created in 1434 by the Flemish artist Jan van Eyck. What van Eyck’s portrait is about is so controversial; it is often referred to by several titles including The Arnolfini Portrait, The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami, and The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride.
This tantalizing and unparalleled image is one of the enigmas of art history. With its compelling characters, its puzzle like combination of objects, and the truly breathtaking detail of its execution, it requires an explanation as well as interpretation. In van Eyck’s stunning double portrait, scholars agree bears witness to the marriage of Arnolfini, a successful Italian banker who settled in Bruges in the Netherlands in about 1421. The painting, which is full of symbolism, is the bases for the controversy. The objects in the portrait and what these objects symbolize has been the source of speculation for centuries. At the top of the portrait, is a single candle that burns in the chandelier. The elaborate chandelier is reflective of wealth and a high standard of living. The question arises of why its single candle is lit on such a bright day. Could the candle represent the divine presence of Christ or is it an indication that the vow being taken is as yet not final. A single lighted candle was also known to represents the all-seeing eye of God. A single lighted candle was placed next to the bed of newlyweds to encourage fertility. Carved on the bedpost is a woman with a dragon at her feet. It is probably St. Margaret, the patron saint of childbirth, whose attribute is the dragon, but the adjacent hand brush suggests that it could be St. Martha, the patron saint of housewives, who share the same attribute. In the center of the room, is a signature written in lavish Gothic script which reads “Johannes De Eyck fuit hic 1432” which means “Jan van Eyck was here in 1434. Is the florid decoration of the first letter related to similar decoration found in signatures on contemporary legal documents? A large expensive mirror is located in the center of room. Around the mirror are ten of the fourteen Stations of the Cross, incidents during Christ’s journey to his death at Golgotha. Their presence suggests that the interpretation of the picture should be as much Christian and spiritual as legal and factual. The artist has also included his reflection in the mirror, indicating his presence at a specific moment. Some scholars suggest that he was a witness to the marriage. Also there is a reflection of two people in the mirror which for this time suggested that the picture is in effect, a legal document certifying Arnolfini’s marriage. On the right of the male figure in the portrait, are crystal prayer beads. The beads were a typical engagement present from a prospective husband to his bride-to-be. Crystal is a sign of purity, and the beads suggest the virtue of the bride and her duty to remain devout. Is this another indication of piety, or perhaps because light can pass through glass without changing it, a symbol of the brides’ virginity? On the window sill is expensive fruit. Oranges, which were imported from the South, were luxury goods in Northern Europe and they are perhaps a reminder of the Mediterranean origins of the sitters. Known as “Adam’s apples,” oranges are also used to represent the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden. Your eyes are drawn to the figures hands. Hands linked together are central to Christian marriage signifying the uniting of the two people as one. The linked hands also unify the picture and their shape is echoed above by the curved form of the chandelier. Giovanna Cenami is shown standing in elegant dress. The green dress is fashionable and suitable for a society portrait and a marriage picture; green is the symbolic color of fertility. She is not pregnant, but her pose emphasizes the stomach, which at the time was regarded as a focus of beauty. It is possible that her pose and the exaggerated curvature of her stomach are meant to indicate fertility and future pregnancy. The train, Giovanna holds up in a pose that also emphasizes her abdomen. Asking the question is this to stress the idea that she is ready to bear children? Her hair is forced in to nets to create the fashionable “horns” of the period, and her head covering is trimmed with elaborate ruffles. The fact that both have covered their heads seems important. Is this a sign of respect and sanctity, perhaps because they are participating in the sacrament of marriage? Giovanna came from a wealthy Italian family, and the marriage had no doubt been carefully arranged as a good match. Giovanni de Arrigo Arnolfini being a wealthy Italian merchant wears sober clothes which were fashionable for the time. The huge hat offers some debate. Is this another suggestion that this is an important, formal occasion? The fur trimmed cape suggests his wealth and status as do the many yards of material in Giovanna’s train. Both have removed the sandals that they would have worn in the dirty streets outside. Discarded shoes were a sign that a religious ceremony was taking place. The prominent position of the shoes is perhaps important. Giovanna’s red shoes are near the bed, her husband’s nearer to the outside world. There was a belief at this time that touching the ground with bare feet ensured fertility. And the last image in the portrait causing debate is the dog. A lighthearted touch that adds a charming touch to a picture that is otherwise noteworthy for its solemnity. The detailed painting of its wiry coat is a technical toure de force. Dogs in portraits often represent faithfulness and earthly love, and this is almost certainly its symbolic purpose here. Another interpretation is the alert dog in the foreground stands between us and them and almost seems to be protecting them. The dog being symbolic is suggested by the fact that he in not reflected in the mirror. After carefully reviewing the many ideas of the symbols in this portrait, I too am left with many unanswered questions. Because there is no similar portrait in all of Italian or Flemish fifteenth-century painting, it seems unlikely that the purpose of this work was simply to record their marriage. There must of have been something special about the relationship between these two individuals that demanded this representation. Whatever the function of this portrait, the desire of this couple to record their relationship has been given immortality.

MYglesias said...

Artemisia Gentileschi was born 1593 in Rome. Artemisia was the daughter of a well known Roman artist named Orazio Gentileschi. Artemisia was one of the first woman artists to achieve recognition in the male dominated world of post Renaissance art. She was the first woman to paint major historical and religious scenarios. Artemisia Gentileschi, widely regarded as the most important woman artist before the modern period, was a major Italian Baroque painter of the seventeenth century and the only female follower of Caravaggio.
The major influence in Artemisia’s work was the crime of rape that happened to her at the age of 19, by a family friend Agostino Tassi. The trauma of the rape and the trial impacted her paintings. The graphic depictions were cathartic and symbolic attempts to deal with the physical and psychological pain. The one painting in particular that caught my eye is titled Susanna and the Elders. This painting concentrates on the vulnerability of a naked woman whose private bath has been violated by the predatory elders. The violence and the vulnerability shown in this painting have been described as a kind of therapy and a revenge substitute.
In this painting Susanna and the Elders, the figure of Susanna is placed in a restricted space which shows discomfort. Her awkward pose and her nudity show anxiety, fear, and shame. Gentileschi utilizes a technique in her paintings known as tenebrism, which means murky. She uses dark shadows with dramatic spots of light. Like Susanna, Artemisia also had two assailants. Tassi was joined by Cosimo Quorti in the attack to Artemisia
I really like Artemisia’s’ work. She was able to find a way to get her anger out. She had very little options on revenge. She found a way to stress the psychological turmoil that she had endured.
Michele Y.

clee said...

While looking at art and artist there is but one who’s work has sparked my interest Jackson Pollock. In his early life his five older brothers knew him as Paul Jackson Pollock born January 28, 1912 Cody, Wyoming. He grew up in Arizona and Chico, California, studying at Los Angeles ‘Manual Arts High School. It is believed while growing up Pollock would go on surveying trips with his father it was during this time he experienced the Native American culture that influenced his style of painting.
Pollock moved to New York in 1930 after his brother Charles, where they both studied under Thomas Benton at the Art Students League of New York. This where Pollock’s career began while living with his brother he meet Peggy Guggenheim the first to take notice of his talent. At this time his work had yet to take shape of what it was to become in the years to come. It was soon after meeting Peggy that he got his first one man show in 1943 at the Art of This Century Gallery, he was not an instant success it was only through trial and error he found his true style of art. Soon after this he got married to Lee Krasner and they moved to Long Island, New York to what is now known as the Pollock-Krasner House and Studio. This is where Life Magazine discovered “Jack the Dripper” he moved from figurative representation to abstract impressionist.
When painting with this technique he said “My painting does not come from the easel. I prefer to tack the outstretched canvas to the hard floor. I need the resistance of the hard surface. On the floor I am more at ease. I feel nearer, more part of the painting, since this way I can walk around it, work from the four sides and literally be in the painting.”He believed when he was engulfed in his painting that he could control the flow of paint and there were no accidents.
Though his paintings were masterful his personal life was all but a mess for most of his life. Lee Krasner came along and saw this man’s talent and passion and loved him for it, despite his struggles with alcoholism. Had it not been for her diligence to contact the right people and keep him in order, Pollock may have never been discovered. I believe that much of his success must be contributed to the love and care Lee Krasner showed throughout his alcoholic binges. If had not been for her he may well have died before August 11, 1956 (age 44) in that fatal car accident.
As I think about art I envision Jackson Pollock dancing rhythmically around his Lavender Mist: Number 1, 1950. He was an artist that did something original, he was outside of the box, he wanted to be great and with his own creative style he was. He didn’t want to be like anyone else like Picasso or Monet he had his own dream to better than them to create a new style all his own which is still alive today. He was said to be the greatest American painter of his time. His Number 5 painting was sold to a private owner for 140,000,000 which makes it the most expensive painting in the world. So in my opinion Jackson Pollock recreated the world of art and his work still shows it today. /feature/Pollock

Patricia Carlucci said...

One of the most difficult places for a person to go is to their own darkest area of their psyche. It’s an emotional and strenuous process. Hieronymus Bosch is an artist who takes you to the dark side of humanity and does so with creativity, imagination and skill. Little is known about Bosch. We do know he was born Jeroen Anthonissen van Aken in 1450 in the city of Hertogenbosch. When he changed his name he was influenced by the city of his birth. He was a very religious and orthodox man and belonged to the Brotherhood of Our Lady. He did several pieces for this religious order although all of them have been lost. He died August 9, 1516 and was given a funeral by the Brotherhood. Nothing is known of what kind of man he was, nor any insight into his own perspective of his art. All we have are the paintings that have survived the test of time, from these we can only assume who the man was behind the art. Earlier in class I had discussed his piece “The Garden of Earthly Delights” but in this essay I wish to share with you “Christ Carrying the Cross” (above is the link to this image).
“Christ Carrying the Cross” portrays the painful journey of Christ to his place of crucifixion but more specifically the moment after a woman by the name of Veronica had stepped through the hostile crowd to wipe the blood and sweat from Jesus’ face with her veil. When she stepped away it is said that the face of Jesus Christ remained imprinted on the cloth and this religious artifact would be known as the Shroud of Turin. This story has been portrayed by numerous artists but I find Bosch’s to be the most unique.
Bosch’s depiction lacks complete human form and instead focuses from the chest up and specifically their faces. There are 18 faces in this painting, all but two are grotesque caricature’s symbolizing the angry, hating, and vile mob that mocked and beat Christ on his journey to his death. The faces are all exaggerated and twisted from real form. This excess of expression strengthens the feeling of human ugliness and separation from the loving philosophies of Christ. None of the grotesque faces are looking at Christ which perhaps symbolizes that thought they are there, gossiping, cursing, they do not see the purpose of his sacrifice. Their expressions also provide a stark contrast to the other two faces in this painting, making them stand out and demand attention. The first face is that of Christ. His face located just to the left of the picture’s center. His expression seems to be one of sadness and reflection. His bowed head and placement of his hands at the base of the cross makes it look like he’s praying for the mob that hates him but does not see him. The other face that stands out is that of Veronica. She has just wiped Christ’s face and has turned away. Her face is very soft and beautiful as she looks down at the impression of Christ’s face on the cloth. She has a look of peace and contentment on her face, symbolizing her acknowledgement of what Christ is doing and why and the fact she has touched and walked away with a spiritual and physical part of Jesus himself.
The colors that Bosch used in this painting are consistent with his other works when depicting wickedness. The harsh black background, the cold grays, murky blues, and the splatter of red. He pales the faces of many in the mob giving them an almost dead look to them. Veronica, however, has a soft and pleasant colored face. Her clothing is accented with white and pale blue and contrasts with the murky blues associated with the mob. The smattering of red in the painting helps direct your eyes in a curved path to the face of Jesus.
What’s really interesting about this painting is its lack of perspective. In Bosch’s other works he has a defined foreground and background and layers in between. But in this painting, it’s a two dimensional overlay of characters. When I look at this choice of composition I wonder if he did it to emphasize the chaos of the situation. The lack of structure in the painting goes against the common Renaissance ideals of perspective. Personally I feel this was an appropriate choice to make and very few paintings portray the chaos of this moment as well as Bosch’s “Christ Carrying the Cross”.
In conclusion Bosch was a master of the dark psyche. He knew how to paint the horror and pain of sin and the negative attributes of humanity. In this piece however Bosch is careful to provide hope. Humanity can right itself by recognizing Christ’s greatest sacrifice just like Veronica did. I’m actually not a religious person and in fact I hate the church but I admire the faith of others. Bosh took a stand to paint harsh truths about humanity to his viewing public and his work appropriately makes people uncomfortable, forcing them to see the dark side in us all, the side we often deny exists. For this I admire Bosch above all other artists of the Renaissance period.


1. WebMuseum, Paris.

2. Wikipedia – Hieronymus Bosch.

LillianSoto said...

“When I tell the truth, it is not for the sake of convincing those who do not know it, but for the sake of defending those that do”, said by William Blake. According to, Encyclopedia Britannica Blake was an English engraver, artist, poet, and visionary, author of poignant lyrics, such as “The Lamb” and “Jerusalem”. Furthermore, his art exerted imagination over logic; as a result, he felt ideal forms should be composed from inner visions. In the early 21st century, Blake was revered as the earliest and most original of the Romantic (Art that emphasizes imagination, emotion, and introspection according to, poet; although, in his lifetime he was often neglected or dismissed as mad (“Blake”, par. 1).

Formerly, Blake was born in London in 1757. Thereafter, Blake’s father sent him to Henry Pars’s Drawing School in Strand, London (1767-72). Later, he became an apprentice to, a conservative line engraver who specialized in prints depicting architecture, James Basire. Upon the completion of his apprenticeship in 1779, Blake began to feverishly work as an independent engraver. Simultaneously, he enrolled into the Royal Academy of Arts. Blake utilized watercolors and paper as opposed to modish oil on canvas to depict subjects from the Bible and British history. Shortly after, Blake’s initial commission was to illustrate an astounding 537 watercolors for Edward Young’s poem “Night Thoughts”. Regardless, it was unsuccessful due to the publisher going out of business; consequently, advertisement to sell the book was neglected (“Blake”, pars. 12-22).

Thereafter, in 1788 Blake experimented with relief etching, a method he used to produce numerous paintings and prophecies, such as the “Bible”. According to, Wikipedia etching is the process of using strong potent acid to cut into susceptible parts of a metal surface to create a design. Next, the plates were hand colored with watercolors, then stitched together to make up a volume. In addition, Blake utilized the illuminated printing technique that is not completely understood. According to, Encarta he wrote the words and drew the picture for each poem on a copper plate, using a liquid impenetrable to acid. Afterwards, ink or a color wash was adhered; a printed picture was finished by hand in watercolors. For example, Blake’s most received works, such as “The Book of Thel” entail illuminated printing (“Blake” pars. 1-5).

Later, in 1794 Blake published the poem “Europe, a Prophecy” with one of his most notable illustration known as, “Ancient of Days.” Furthermore, the influence of Michelangelo is evident in the radical foreshortening and exaggerated muscular form. Also, his method implemented the line in repudiation of the painterly academic style according to, Encarta. On the contrary, Blake shunned 18th century mode, such as observations of nature (“William” par. 10).

In summary, Blake’s literature accompanied with his art illuminate the imagination deep in the recesses of our minds. I admire Blake’s originality and eccentric style that was evoked in his literate and illustrations. As a result, he is considered one of the most influential and thought provoking artists of the 18th century. A man not forestalled by predecessors, or to be classified with contemporaries, nor to be replaced by known or readily sizeable successors according to, Wikipedia.

Works Cited:
Blake, William. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
22 July 2008
URL Not Permitted

William Blake. MSN Encarta. 2008 Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia

22 July 2008


Monalisasmile said...

The major breakthroughs in art during the Renaissance were the change from tempera paint on wood panels and fresco on plaster walls to oil on stretched canvas and the use of perspective, giving weight and depth to form; the use of light and shadow known as chiaroscuro, as opposed to simply drawing lines; and pyramidal configuration in paintings.
It is in the early Renaissance that we find our hero, Masaccio. He is considered the founder of Early Renaissance painting, which became the cornerstone of European painting for more than six centuries. Masaccio is part of the triumvirate of Quattrocentro (from the Italian for ‘400, or from millequattrocentro ‘1400) geniuses who invented this new style we refer to as the Renaissance. Masaccio was born Tommaso Cassari or in some accounts Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Mone on December 21, 1401 in Castel San Giovanni di Altura, what is now considered a providence of Tuscany. He died in the autumn of 1428, and in that brief period of 27 years, he had a profound influence on art as we know it today.
In 1424, Masaccio was commissioned by the powerful and rich Felice Brancacci to execute a cycle of frescoes for the Brancacci Chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence. The theme of the chapel was to be the history of St. Peter. The most widely known and acclaimed fresco in the Brancacci Chapel is “The Tribute Money” painted by none other than Masaccio in 1427. This fresco displays Masaccio’s full array of talents. It owes its importance in particular to its innovative use of perspective and chiaroscuro. The image stands 255cm tall and 598cm wide, and has been restored a number of times over the years to make it the powerful and colorful image it now is. The painting is most commonly seen as a continuous narrative linked by the three figures of St. Peter, Christ and the tax collector. The scene depicted in Tribute Money is from Matthew's Gospel, that of the arrival of Jesus and the Apostles in Capernaum and a visit from the tax collector. Masaccio's Tribute Money tells the as three separate events happening at different times: first, the tax collector requests the tribute money to Rome, and Jesus tells Peter how to find it; second, Peter fishes as directed by Jesus and catches a fish in Lake Genezaret, then extracts a coin from the fish; third, Peter pays the tax collector with the coin (tribute money). Simultaneous to Masaccio's Tribute Money was a controversy over a proposed tax reform in Florence which was settled in 1427. The Biblical story referenced by Masaccio's Tribute Money was meant to teach the legitimacy of paying taxes.
Masaccio pioneered the use of single- point perspective. He also took it one step further and mastered the use of atmospheric, or aerial perspective. It is very much evident in Tribute Money. When looking at the fresco you will notice that compare to the objects in the foreground, the mountains in the background and the figure of Peter on the left is dimmer and paler, which creates that illusion of depth. This had not been done in painting since antiquity and he reinvented it.
Another important improvement that we can attribute to Masaccio is his use of light. Earlier artist from the International Gothic style applied a flat, neutral light from an unidentified source. In Tribute Money, we see that the light originates from a specific location outside the picture, casting the figures in a light and shadow, creating a chiaroscuro effect that sculpted the bodies into three-dimensional shapes.
I believe that when you compare the previous art styles to the work of Masaccio it is very clear to see and appreciate why he is deemed the founder of Early Renaissance art. He completely transform the way painting was done and for the better. For the first time in a long time there was a natural beauty to art that was very much needed in that time period. When I look at Tribute Money, I cannot say it is aesthetically beautiful to me or it is my favorite painting but I appreciate it for all of the groundbreaking ideas it bought forth. One just cannot help but value this monumental work of art.

Calypso Dogbe

KimElser said...

If one is to compose a list of the most famous artists of all time, Vincent Van Gogh has to be included. He developed his own unique style of impressionism by using colors as a means to express values and symbolism. Impressionist artists of his time were using color only to replicate the visual appearance of a setting, atmosphere, and lighting. `Instead of trying to reproduce exactly what I have before my eyes,' he wrote, `I use color more arbitrarily so as to express myself more forcibly'. Notably, Van Gogh is regarded as a post-impressionist, rather than an impressionist.
Van Gogh’s art work spans a variety of differing art genres. His variety of art and his expression of individuality make him an interesting artist to examine. His art career spanned a mere 10 years but produced a remarkable 900 paintings. His biography includes the infamous story of cutting off his own ear and his suicide which will always be reminders of his very real mental instability. It has been speculated that he suffered from bipolar disorder and possibly epilepsy. Van Gogh’s sad struggle with mental illness was of great significance in his art.
It is interesting, considering his battle with mental illness, that he painted a great number of self-portraits. The great number of his self portraits points to an obvious comparison to Rembrandt as does his superb expressiveness which both artists master. There is a great variance in the amount of time each artist took to produce these numerous works; Rembrandt produced his self-portraits throughout his entire lifetime while Van Gogh painted thirty within five years time.
Van Gogh’s self-portraits are all interesting. The influence of his time in Paris is seen in the different adaptations of Impressionist and Neoimpressionist brushwork.; separate patches of color applied varying the thickness and direction so as to make the brushwork more obvious. This emphasis of the brushstrokes keeps the painting interesting, fresh, and draws the viewer to the colors. The emphasis on certain contrasting colors draws the viewer to the face and more specifically to the eyes, as Van Gogh intended. There, an extraordinary intensity of expression exudes.

When I discovered, during my research, that Van Gogh created a commemoration of his tragic ear injury in a self-portrait, I knew I wanted to understand more. Van Gogh self-mutilated himself during an irrational fit of madness and a fight with the artist, Paul Gauguin. He severed his left ear lobe with a razor, wrapped it in cloth and then took it to a brothel and presented it to one of the women there. This unthinkable event prompted Van Gogh to paint his Self-Portrait with Bandanged Ear. (Courtauld Institute, London)

Mental illness caused his maimed condition but what prompted him to immortalize this image by depicting it in a painting? I found a theory to provide an explanation. Van Gogh had picked up the religious beliefs of Buddhism while in Arles in hopes of harnessing his mental problems. When he failed to be the Buddhist monk he envisioned, his mental illness took control and caused him to cut off his ear. It was his awareness of this failure and resulting consequence that inspired him to paint this self-portrait portraying his condition in 1889.

Assessing the portrait, the painting is most substantially done in the same greenish hue as is his first self-portrait in Arles. Van Gogh wears a winter cap and a green coat in contrast to his original brown one. It is noteworthy that he wears these items indoors. In my research I found that he was greatly affected by the bleakness of grey weather such as comes in the winter months. The ear was cut off on December 23 so his portrait was painted in the winter. It is possible that the garments are indicative of depression but maybe he was just dressed for the season. The colors in the painting are vibrant and substantial since Van Gogh used color as a means to depict values and symbolism. I believe his use of strong colors, thick brushstrokes, and the hardened facial expression are conveying his resiliency and strength. There is no fear in his face but I do see bitterness in the expression which possibly conveys that no one else knows what he is experiencing. This, I gathered because of his furrowed brow. A point of interest is that Van Gogh cut off his left ear lobe, yet he painted the bandage over his right ear. In the background of the painting is a Japanese artwork..Van Gogh had collected such artwork and mimicked it some. Does this make a connection to the Buddhism theory? We can only make guesses at the true meaning of the painting but perhaps that was the artist’s intention.

During his lifetime, Van Gogh sold only one painting. As with most artists, his fame grew greatly after his death. Today, several paintings by Vincent Van Gogh rank as the most expensive in the world. Van Gogh’s painting Irises sold in 1987 for 53.9 million dollars. Another of the artist’s paintings, Portrait of Doctor Gachet, sold for 82.5 million in 1990. Van Gogh’s paintings are all in the millions of dollars category.

Some art work appeals with obvious beauty. This painting is not one of those. Its appeal is the interest it arouses. I love art work that makes me look at it and pose questions. This piece is fascinating. It is interesting in its technique, in its questionable intended meaning, and in the story that caused its creation. The bold and muted color schemes also add interest to this work especially when you consider Van Gogh’s use of color to convey symbolism. This painting emits the interest that Vincent Van Gogh’s paintings always provoke.


BillyP said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
BillyP said...

Although he only lived from 1912 to 1956, Jackson Pollock became known as one of the leading painters of the Abstract Expressionist movement in America. When he was young he began to study at the Art Students’ League in New York under the tutelage of Thomas Hart Benton, and over time he became more and more influenced by Surrealism, and he painted it well. However, it wasn’t until 1947 that he began to splatter his paint in a way that would become his defining style that he is still remembered for today.
Jackson Pollock was known for pondering his paintings before working on them, yet over time they seemed to become more sporadic as he began to splatter the paint and even smear it with sand and glass. Many people criticized his newer style by saying that anyone could do it or that each of his paint splatters were nothing more than random accidents. Pollock argued that he had learned to control the paint as it fell. He even went so far as to comment that he was more into his paintings than ever since he could walk around all four sides of the canvas or even onto it if he felt the urge. With this wild style, Pollock soon became known as an action painter and was the first “all-over” painter. He was called an action painter because of all of the action that went into bringing out his paintings that he said had a life of their own that he was trying to allow to come through. The “all-over” term referred to no identifiable points or emphasis in his work. It was this action, exceptional control, and lack of emphasis that helped his popularity far outweigh the cries of those who disagreed.
Personally, I had never really thought much of art like this before learning of Pollock. It is very easy to write his work off as a sham. However, the more that I look into his style, his passion, and how each of his paintings is so unique; I find that I enjoy his work more and more. Each painting has it’s own depth and his choice of colors compliment each other very well. This can be seen in his painting “One: Number 31, 1950” which takes up an entire wall in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. This painting is just one of many that shows that even though his work might seem similar, each painting is very different from one another.
Each of his paintings seem to have the power to draw a person in, to ask someone to seek out an emotion in the art. Looking at his work I feel as if I do find certain emotions even if I don’t know if they are the same emotions that Pollock felt while painting them. Every splatter, smear, and smudge seems to tell a story of a sliver of time in his life as he painted. Jackson Pollock died tragically in 1956 at the age of 44, but through his heartfelt paintings we can still see the struggle that made up much of his life.



andrea smith said...

I chose the artist Georgia O’Keefe, not only is she is a spectacular artist, but she is one of the very few women artists that were ever really recognized. She was also the first women to have a retrospective show of art at the Museum of Modern Art. Oriental Poppies is one of her most famous works. O’Keefe was able to vividly portray the power and emotion of nature particularly in this work.

For seven decades, Georgia O'Keeffe (1887–1986) was a major figure in the art world. Georgia O’Keeffe remained independent from shifting art trends and stayed true to her own vision, which was based on finding the essential, abstract forms in nature. Her primary subjects were landscapes, flowers, and bones, explored in series over several years. The images were drawn from her life experience and related either generally or specifically to places where she lived. She studied under William Merritt Chase and Frank Dumond during her career.

She had an obvious talent and a gift of dramatizing flowers and this was proven in Oriental Poppies the colors just pop off the page and scream for attention. Her time spent out doors influenced her to draw them. “If I could paint the flower exactly as I see it no one would see what I see because I would paint it small like the flower is small. So I said to myself - I'll paint what I see - what the flower is to me but I'll paint it big and they will be surprised into taking time to look at it - I will make even busy New Yorkers take time to see what I see of flowers.” (Georgia O'Keeffe)

I love flowers: that's about all there is to it. Flowers are probably my favorite aspect of nature. Georgia O'Keefe's work allows me to enjoy my infatuation of flowers in yet another way: by viewing them through another person's eyes. Her paintings allow me to successfully shut out the "real world" of stress and deadlines--something I think we could all use now and again.'Keeffe

RobEads said...

Leonardo da Vinci stands out as a perfect example of a true Renaissance man. He was a versatile genius in that he was not only an amazing painter, but an architect, inventor, sculptor, philosopher, engineer, and mathematician as well. He was also left handed, a vegetarian, and apparently a homosexual. Leonardo "wished to work miracles" as he himself said. Allthough he came from humble beginnings, he was truely able to accomplish that in his lifetime.
Born in the town of Vinci, Italy Leonardo was the son of a notary and a peasant woman. Leonardo became apprenticed to the artist known as Verrochio at age fourteen. He studied metal work, foundrey work, and botany. Leonardo was an obsessive sketch artist, making sure that he captured every last detail of a smallest leaf or branch. Eventually Leonardo excelled past his master, Verrochio. At age 21 Leonardo had mastered the concepts of light and shadow.
Leonardo became infatuated with the movements of the human body. He believed that "the movements of the body should reflect the movements of the mind." He also believed that "art should simulate the full extent of nature."
Leonardo believed so strongly in these ideas that he would compulsively study the faces of random patrons and sketch their faces. His observations conveyed in his sketches the true emotion of the individual's spirit. The realism in his sketches are amazing to me. I know that his most famous work is the Mona Lisa, but I am personally blown away by his sketches of faces that he observed. It is not known exactly what happened to many of his drawings but some of his sketches have been preserved, (which is how we came to find out that Leonardo practiced and observed human cadavers.)
The realism that is portrayed in Leonardo's depiction of the human face is uncanny. The wrinkles, shadowing, and expressions that he draws make the aura of a person jump out at me from the page. To imagine Leonardo sitting in a corner of a bar or restaraunt and just sketching away, and seeing the masterful pictures that were found in his sketchbook is unbelievable. There were also diagrams of contraptions that he designed for not only warfare but for the good of mankind such as primitive transportation devices and human anatomy diagrams. One of his sketches pictured the human heart. It was illegal to practice on human cadavers because it went against the beliefs of the Catholic church. Leonardo was more interested in information that rules. The human heart that he drew was unbelievably accurate as we later came to realize once the picture was found. Leonardo was truley ahead of his time and an asset to not only the world of art but medicine and other genres as well.
Leonardo was "truley the embodiment of the Renaissance spirit." He is revered as a genius whose intellect and passion for understanding may never be paralleled ever again.

1.) Documentary Movie
Biography: Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance Man


3.) image link-

4.) image link-

mandy said...

Caillebotte was born in 1848 to a wealthy family in Paris. He was an engineer by trade, but he attended a fine arts school in Paris where he worked with artists such as Léon Bonnat, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, and Pierre Auguste Renoir. In 1873 his father died, leaving him the family fortune. Throughout the rest of his life, Caillebotte financed many of the impressionist galleries that he and his friends were a part of during his lifetime. He was also quite generous in helping his impressionist friends financially, and he often bought their works of art at very high prices. Along with being a painter, Caillebotte was also a highly skilled horticulturist and a yachtsman who designed and built his own boats. He created some 500 works in his lifetime. He died in 1894 and left the remaining works that he owned to the French State. This generous, although not initially accepted by the museum, donation of impressionist works gives today’s museums most of their major works of Monet, Degas, Sisley, Renoir.

Among Caillebotte’s works exist some of extraordinary merit. Place de l’Europe on a Rainy Day is one such work. The most significant technique of this painting is that of perspective. The painting is separated subtly, yet dramatically. The main vanishing point is right beside the gas lamp. The piece shows a man and woman in the foreground, who are dressed in a more wealthy manner. Although the buildings were slightly distorted for the artist’s purposes, the piece as a whole seems very realistic and convincing. This specific intersection was chosen by Caillebotte because his family had owned property there.

This piece reminds me of my childhood. When I was young my mom owned a game called Masterpiece in which the main goal was to distinguish forgeries from originals of famous pieces. This was my favorite piece to collect during the game. For some time during my childhood, I lived in Europe and we would visit Paris. I remember walking streets that looked like these depicted in this painting. I like the dreary setting with the mute colors of this work. If I were to imagine Paris in the 1800’s, this is what I would see.

mandy said...

Links for Caillebotte: de Paris par temps de pluie - 1875

Dustin Knisley said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Dustin Knisley said...

The artists I’ve chosen for my essay are two people we have covered in class. Their work of art caught my eye immediately just because of how the artists use the land to create their works of art. The artists I’m referring to happen to be married. Christo and Jeanne-Claude are the artists that I have chosen to write about. Part of the reason I chose these artists is for the simple fact that most of their works are so criticized by everyone, Christo and Jeanne-Claude always seem to stir up and create some kind of commotion with every piece of work they do.
Christo and Jeanne-Claude have done all kinds of work everything from the wrapping of the Reichstag in Berlin and the Pont Neuf bridge in Paris, the 24 mile-long curtain called Running Fence in Marin and Sonoma counties in California, and most recently The Gates in New York City’s Central Park. Although their work is visually impressive and often controversial as a result of its scale, the artists have repeatedly denied that their projects contain any deeper meaning than their immediate aesthetic. The purpose of their art, they contend, is simply to make the world a "more beautiful place" or to create new ways of seeing familiar landscapes. The work of art I have chosen to talk about is their most recent work and one of their most controversial works as well. The Gates in Central Park was completed on February 12th and opened to the public from then to February 27th 2005.
The Gates in New York City’s famous Central Park, which was finally passed by Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg in January of 2005, is the most controversial piece of work Christo and Jeanne-Claude have produced. It took a total of 7,503 gates made of Saffron yellow material to complete this work of art. These gates were placed on the pathways in Central Park; they stood five meters high and had a length of 37 kilometers. The Gates project cost an estimated 21 million dollars which was all raised by christo and Jeanne-Claude themselves. They raised this money by selling some of their works from the 1950’s and 60’s, as well as some original photographs from their other works. The city of New York didn’t have to donate a single penny to this project, and every dollar that was made by selling t-shirts and postcards Christo and Jeanne-Claude actually donated to New York’s Nature Inc.
Like I have previously mentioned The Gates caused a lot of commotion. Some people liked the work and others hated the work, they couldn’t see the point of it and couldn’t understand why Christo and Jeanne-Claude would spend so much money on it. Those who were out raged by this work thought the money could have been donated to a good cause like world hunger. Although I like their work and think it’s fascinating how they accomplish some of their works, I also tend to agree with those who think it’s crazy to spend that much money on something that was only up for about two weeks. All in all I like their work and am really amazed by what they make. I can’t wait to hear and see what their next work is going to be.

chad_mccoy said...

The Man behind “Starry Night”
No matter who you are, or where you live everyone is bound to accidently run into Vincent Van Gogh’s painting called “Starry Night.” This painting has always been one of my personal favorites for many reasons. When you first look at the painting the bright stars beam as if it’s not a painting you are looking at, but instead the night sky as it was over the Asylum at Saint-Remy so many years ago when it was painted in 1889. The brush strokes are so evident, yet flowing and inviting. The small town that lies just beyond the rolling hills looks like the little town a person would want to raise a family in. Vincent Van Gogh’s impressionistic style was so amazing that he is the foundation for comparison against other artist to this day.
Born on March 30, 1853 Van Gogh grew up in a very religious environment desiring to follow in his father’s footsteps, and become a preacher. So he found himself at the age of twenty-seven as a missionary in a coal mining camp in Borinage. This particular assignment was one the clergy thought of as a punishment for ministers that had done something wrong, but Vincent volunteered for it. He was content just being able to follow his passion. Here he received the inspiration for the painting called the “Potato Eaters” which demonstrated the filth, and poverty that was an everyday part of life in the coal mines. After giving his room up to an elderly woman who was sick he lived with some miners, which at the time was considered no way a man of the lord should live. So upon the news the clergy took away his position, and Vincent decided to leave the mines to become a painter at the urging of his brother Theo. Theo was an art dealer, and volunteered to support him financially. Living back at home Vincent decided to set his sights on the ability to draw. He later went into painting models which were very expensive at the time so Vincent would get together with other artists and paint each other. After Vincent had what he perceived as failed attempts at art he enrolled himself in an academy in Antwerp. In 1888, after Van Gogh finished the academy he decided he would move to Arles, thinking other artists would follow him to this town he thought was a center stone for the art world. Eventually, with a strong request from Theo, another painter by the name of Paul Gauguin did join him in Arles. At this time in his life, Vincent started showing signs of mental illness. He actually got into a fight with Gauguin, and threatened him with a knife. Later that evening, Vincent cut off his own ear, and gave it to a prostitute that he had been seeing. At this point in his life he committed himself to an Asylum where he painted Starry Night along with many other paintings. Through all of this his brother supported him, and actually named his son after Vincent. On July 27, 1890 Vincent felt he had become too much of a burden to his brother, and shot himself in the chest with a revolver. He then died two days later from the wound. It is amazing to think that in the ten years he painted over 800 paintings out of which only one sold while Vincent Van Gogh was alive. If you would like to see this painting, or learn more about Van Gogh, you can look online at or read “Van Gogh” by Alberto Martini both of which supplied the information in this paper.

Jennifer Bentson said...

Salvador Dali was born in Figueres, Spain in May 11, 1904. Figueres is a small farming town only sixteen miles from France. Salvador Dali lived a somewhat privileged life; spending his childhood summers at his family’s summer home in Cadaques. It was there in Cadaques where his parents built his first art studio and where Dali remained for most of his adult life. Dali’s parents had lost their first child at age seven; his name was also Salvador. The over protective love which they bestowed on their second born, Salvador Dali, encouraged Dali to develop in to a temperamental and extremely selfish child. Dali wet the bed till age eight, just for pure amusement. He also bullied other children including his younger sister. Dali’s parents still remained concerned about Dali’s health. To make him feel better about is frequent nose bleeds and angina Dali’s parents gave him a “king costume” to wear around the house. Dali truly was the dictator of his household and he knew it.
It was at Dali’s first one man show where he received international fame. Three of his paintings were exhibited in the third Carnegie International Exhibition in Pittsburg in 1928. This is where it all started for Salvador Dali. Dali once said, “I cannot understand, what man should be capable of so little fantasy.” For Dali fantasy was only the beginning. The next year Dali traveled to Paris where he became a member of the Paris Surrealist Group. Dali joined this group because he saw the similarities in the aims and his own. Later in the year Dali meet Gala Eluard who became an inspiration for many of Dali’s great works. Dali and Eluard married when they made their first trip to America in 1934. Eluard was Dali’s manager, lover and muse. Dali and Eluard returned to America during World War 2, but when back to Spain shortly after the war ended. The entire time Dali’s popularity continued to grow. The public loved his “flamboyance” and “flair.” Dali not only made an image for himself through his paintings, but was also recognized for his book illustrations, deigns for jewelry, textiles, clothing, costumes, shop interiors and stage sets.
Dali continued to produce magnificent works of art through his life time. Unfortunately after Gala Eluard’s death in 1982, Dali’s health began to fail as well. Dali’s last years (1980-1989) were spent in almost total seclusion.
Many know Dali for his bazaar surreal paintings; however “The View of Cadaques with the Shadow of Mount Pani” is anything but. The reason I wanted to take the time to look at this piece is not only for its uniqueness among Dali’s collection, but because Dali was only 13 years old when he painted this piece. In the painting Dali captures the essence of his homeland where Dali spent his childhood years. It was there in the small fishing town know as Cadaques where Dali clearly demonstrated his young talent. Dali had no formal training when he produced this piece of art. Dali taught himself to paint the impressionist style. He did so by using small daps of un-mixed paint. The Burlap canvas is responsible for the rough texture of the piece. I find this piece to be very calm and relaxing. Mt. Pani, although out of view, plays an important role in this piece. The mountain’s shadow washes across the bottom half of the painting. The darkness from the shadow cascades over the bay and the whitewashed houses on the shore line. This same shadow can be found in many of Dali’s surrealists works as well.
Dali by Paul Moorehouse
-Jennifer Bentson

yvetterodriguez said...

Milton Avery (1885-1965) was an American painter. He was the youngest of four children and was born in 1885 in Sand Bank, New York. At the age of fourteen, the family moved to the suburbs of East Hartford, Connecticut. When he was young, Avery supported himself by working different factory jobs, and after he got off work, he would study life drawing and painting at the Connecticut League of Artists in Hartford, but mostly he remained a self-taught artist. By 1915, he was dedicated to being an artist. In 1917 he began working nights in order to paint in the daytime. The next year he transferred to the School of the Art Society of Hartford.

During the early 1920s, while Avery was in Gloucester, Massachusetts, where he spent his summers, he met his wife, Sally Michel, who was also a painter. Gloucester, Massachusetts was also home to an art colony. In 1925, he moved to New York City because art there was more diverse, where he encountered the work of Matisse and the pre-Cubist work of Picasso.

Avery's early work which was mostly portraits, seascapes, and landscapes where done using heavy impasto, light palette, and atmospheric mistiness much like those of the American Impressionists Ernest Lawson and John Henry Twachtman. Even though his art became increasingly abstract, he was still a traditional realist. He began to use more somber tones and thinner layers of pigment. He never abandoned representational subject matter, painting figure groups, still lives, landscapes, and seascapes. He also began to simplify forms into broad areas of close-valued color. His mature style, which came about in the mid-1940s, is a reduction of the elements to their essential forms, elimination of detail, and surface patterns of flattened shapes, filled with arbitrary color in the manner of Matisse. Although, early in Avery's career, while Social Realism and American Scene painting were the most popular artistic styles, the semi-abstract ways in his work were thought of by many as too radical. When Avery turned his full attention to painting bucolic landscapes in vibrant color it brought the artist critical attention in the 1940s and 1950s and he was recognized as one of America's greatest colorists. His work which emphasized on color was important to many younger artists and other color field painters.

Avery's subjects include depictions of his wife, daughter, and fellow artists. He was also inspired by his new surroundings, so he painted sports events, the circus, vaudeville, Coney Island, and Central Park as well.

"The Steeplechase, Coney Island," ( is an example of his of his art work after moving to New York. Coney Island, a popular ocean-side park and beach in Brooklyn, was the favorite place of the family to send their summertime weekends. In Avery's painting of The Steeplechase, Coney Island it is filled with sunbathers, crowds, a tent, a rifle range, and a roller coaster. He paints oddly shaped figures, posed awkwardly on the beach. Avery has accomplished subtleties of tone with a little use of color and a scumbled texture with his brushwork, where thin layers of pigment are rubbed onto the canvas with a stiff brush, producing a swirl of marks. The painting has a sense of spatial depth through the use of elements along successively receding horizontal layers.


lidget33 said...

Kerry James Marshall’s painting Many Mansions immediately caught my eye with the light pastel flowers and the brown buildings in the background. This painting is very busy; banners, clouds, billboards, and people all saying a depicting a different deeper meaning. He used Acrylic and collage on unstretched canvas to create Many Mansions. Marshall used his own observations and background to make Many Mansions an ironic commentary on the Chicago projects.

Kerry James Marshall was born in 1955 in Birmingham; Alabama but later moved to Los Angeles and attended the Otis Art Institute there. He received his BFA and an honorary doctorate in 1999. The subject matter of his paintings is often based on African-American popular culture and his own background: “You can’t be born in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1955 and grow up in South Central [Los Angeles] near the Black Panthers headquarters, and not feel like you’ve got some kind of social responsibility.” (Marshall). Marshall makes comics and sculptures as well. The “Souvenir” is a series of paintings and sculptures about the civil rights movement Marshall made. He has also been a production designer for such films as Daughters of the Dust and the Hendrix Project. He recently was named the recipient of the MacArthur "Genius Award" and many pieces of his work are in museums across the country. Many Mansions is a part of the permanent collection in Chicago. Today Marshall is an art professor at the University of Illinois, Chicago.

Many Mansions is one of the series of paintings in his "The Garden Project”. Marshall noticed that many of the housing projects in Chicago included garden in there name. In this work he shows three young men dressed formally tending to a garden. He is trying to be ironic, showing the impossible attempt to turn the concrete environment into a garden. Marshall is also trying to show a positive image of African American males. He also used a very black paint on the three young men. He noticed that art in the 18th and 19th century used that same deep black on people in their works had a negative connotation. He tries to go against stereotypes and turn once negative images into positive images. He painted a bird carrying a banner saying Bless Our Happy Home. He also has a banner reading In My Mothers House There Are Many Mansions. This is an adaptation from a bible verse that begins In My Fathers House; Marshall is trying to point out that many urban African American homes are run by the mother. The Easter baskets in the painting represent the hope and renewal.

Marshall has created a complex and very interesting piece of art with Many Mansions. At first glance I was attracted to busy colors and characters but the story behind Marshall and this work is far more interesting. I like that he is sarcastic and ironic. He turned an everyday observation, the use of Garden in housing project names, and created an image complementary to these names. It is ironic because there are no beautiful Easter gardens in Chicago’s South side; the truth is people are too busy working to survive. I also think that the name Many Mansions is ironic with the eight housing apartments in the background. The banners that read “God Bless our Happy Home”, and “In my mothers house there are many mansions” make me feel that Marshall had a hard growing up and his Garden series is helping him deal with it.

Kerry James Marshall is a multitalented artist with his paintings, sculptures and comics but his Garden series paintings stand out as his best works. Many Mansions is a well thought out piece of art; the colors, banners, baskets and flowers all meaning something different. He challenges stereotypes and projects positive images of the housing projects and people who live in them. Marshall created this work in 1994 and I believe he will create even more intriguing pieces of art.

-Bridget Raimondo


Works cited:

1.) PBS Website

2.) History Makers

3.) “A World of Art” fifth edition.
Henry Sayre

Hailey said...

This inspiring artist and filmmaker, Andy Warhol, is considered an originator and a major figure of the pop art movement. In 1945 he entered the Carnegie Institute of Technology where he majored in pictorial design. Upon graduation, Warhol moved to New York where he found steady work as a commercial artist. He worked as an illustrator for several magazines including Vogue, Harper's Bazaar and The New Yorker and did advertising and window displays for retail stores.
Warhol made several 16mm films which have become underground classics such as Chelsea Girls, Empire and Blow Job.
In 1968, Valerie Solanis, founder and sole member of SCUM (Society for Cutting Up Men) walked into Warhol's studio, known as the Factory, and shot the artist. The attack was nearly fatal.
Following routine gall bladder surgery, Andy Warhol died February 22, 1987. After his burial in Pittsburgh, his friends and associates organized a memorial mass at St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York that was attended by more than 2,000 people.
In 1988, a ten-day auction of his vast estate of art and antiques raised over 20 million dollars for The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts. The Andy Warhol Museum was announced in 1989, and opened in Pittsburgh in 1994.
Warhol's infamous thirty-two Campbell soup cans are about nothing of the kind. Though with different labels; same brand, same size, same paint surface, same fame as product. They imitate the form of mass advertising, creating ink images with minor color changes.
The art piece that I have chosen of Andy Warhol’s is the San Francisco Silverspot, from the Endangered Species series, 1983. This abstract picture of a beautiful butterfly is shown on page 239 of the textbook or better yet, on the cover! When I purchased this book, I was aware of more fascinating art pieces than a conflicted color insect and didn’t understand why this would be the chosen cover. I researched this drawing and found his “Marilyn Monroe” piece also. I recall this exact picture being tattooed on someone on the hit tv series, Miami Ink. Silkscreen images utilize bright coloration and challenge the values of mainstream America.

M.Gonzalez said...

When I was in high school 14 years ago, I remember going on a field trip the Ponce Museum of Art which is located in the southern part of the island of Puerto Rico. I was never into the arts at all, however during the visit I remember a painting that truly did captivate me, and never forgot. It was painted by Frederick Lord Leighton, and its name was: Flaming June. It is truly a beautiful piece of art, incredibly vivid, and even though it is a famous painting, not many people know it is held by the Ponce Museum. To appreciate the painting we must know who the artist was, and the style of painting that was evidenced.
Frederick Lord Leighton, was born in Scarborough, England, in 1830, and during the earlier part of his life, he spent them travelling across Europe getting to know all the different cultures (Loggia Frederick, Par. 2). During this period he was inspired by the Victorian "Golden Age" of ancient Greece and Rome, which he was truly able to capture classically inspired works such as Clytie, Idyll, and Greek Girls Picking up Pebbles by the Sea (Loggia Frederick, par. 2). Leighton was one of the most important painters of the Victorian era in the nineteenth century, and was even made President of the Royal Academy in 1878 (Loggia Frederick, Par. 1). He had and incredible painting technique wonderful uses of color and composition, which translates in all his works including the Flaming June which evidenced Leighton’s classicist nature (Loggia Frederick, Par. 3).
The Flaming June was created in 1895 and painted with oil paints on a 47” x 47” square canvas (Wikipedia, par. 1). It is considered his most recognizable and loved work of art, and it depicts a woman sleeping (Venus) with a apparent fiery silk see-through cloth (Loggia Flaming, Par. 1). It is clearly a painting that was meant to inspire the senses, and Leighton accomplished that magnificently with the use of his orange color (Loggia Flaming, Par. 3).
It is indeed the best painting he has ever created in my opinion, and truly one I have always enjoyed seeing. Leighton was also a very accomplished artist, and all of his works are truly beautiful pieces evidencing the Victorian Period. However he is not as well known as most of the famous artist in the Renaissance, he was a known as a great painter of his Victorian age. I truly recommend people to visit the Ponce Museum of Art in Puerto Rico, because I believe you will be quite impressed with its works of art.

Maricarmen Rivera said...

When going through several different artists, one that really interested me was Spanish painter Goya. This artist went from painting Roco style paintings to produce a series of more sereous sometimes, horrifying paintings. This painter had been painting during the age of enlightment. Started working with the Francisco brothers in their shop. I will be discussing about, Saturn Devouring One of His Sons.
Saturn Devouring One of his sons, this painting was quite a disturbing peice of art that hung in the Goya's dining room table. Goya viewed the world as a place full of terror, violence, and horror. This painting had a lot to do with how Goya viewed the world. He had come down with two major illnesses, that caused almost to die but he did become deaf. In this painting Saturn, which is a figure that symbolizes time, is devouring his son. This is portraying how Time eats us in our every day life. His eyes our bulging out with the appearance of madness. There have been many conflicts to exactly what this picture means. The conflict between youth and old age, also there have been explanations on the relationship between Goya and his own son Javier, the only son of Goya's twenty that had survived adulthood, or with his mistress- the sex of the body being consumed with certainty. Goya never inteded for this picture to be published, so if any notes to this meaning of the painting they were self notes that weren't advertised. It has been said that the painting means "essential to our understanding of the human condition in modern times."
When I saw this painting in the our art book I was really disgusted by it. I wanted to do research behind this painting and the artist because I was thinking to myself, Who would paint such a painting. The meaning behind to me still has no significancce but know that Goya viewed the world basically as depressing explains a lot. Doing more research I learned that this was part of the "Black Paintings" where Goya was painting nothing but depressing pictures during the war in Spain. I personally wouldn't hang this anywhere in my household. Expecially not in my dining room table but then again just like every other famous painting out there, there is much signifance to just a simple splatter of paint or work of art.

Maricarmen Rivera said...

To view the art work that I discussed:

Darrell Griffey Jr said...

Out of the artists that we studied this semester, I found a major interest in Jackson Pollock. The youngest of five sons, country boy Jackson was brought up farming and land surveying with his father. Born in Wyoming in 1912, but grew up in Arizona and Chico, California attending Los Angeles’ Manual Art School, he later followed his oldest brother to New York. There he studied at the Arts Students League of New York and met the woman he would marry in 1945. American artist, Lee Krasner (Pollock’s wife) moved with him to Long Island New York, when his work was noticed by Peggy Guggenheim. Peggy was his dealer, helping the couple buy their first home, and take his art to the next level. While he was widely known in the New York art world, the rest of the world was introduced to him in August of 1949, when Life magazine did a piece on him. In 1951 Pollock was making changes, black instead of color, and unprimed canvas. Struggling with drinking, his wife was alarmed and decided to take a trip to Europe after finding out about his mistress. At the age of 44, Pollock died in a single car crash while intoxicated on August 11, 1956. His mistress survived, but both Pollock and friend Edith Metzger past on. After his death, his wife ensured his name stayed strong in the world of art.
Not knowing much about art, I have a love for abstract. I find it interesting, and spontaneous. The meaning behind the paintings is a mystery, a thought that we can make our own. Jackson Pollack was just that, interesting and spontaneous. His work leaves us thinking. Known to be one of the greatest artists of all time, I must agree, that his art was different from anyone else. My favorite painting is “She Wolf”. I feel this was a painting representing the animal he felt he was inside. Battling with his addictions caused him to change his art. I do appreciate the mystery of his most famous painting, that is worth near 140,000,000, valuing at the most expensive painting in the world. My belief is it could only have been this artist to make this master piece.

Salah said...

Leonardo DaVinci’s Mona Lisa has captured the imagination of millions of people throughout the world. It is one of Davinci’s best known works, and one of the most famous in history. But why? Why has this painting received such acclaim? Why has it become a must see painting when visiting the Louvre? Why all the fuss?
Leonardo Da Vinci was born an illegitimate child on April 15, 1452 in the town Vinci, which is a region in Florence, Italy. Leonardo’s genius transcended his time. He was a number of things and had many talents. Besides painter, his resume might include scientist, inventor, mathematician, sculptor, and the list goes on. When Da Vinci was around fourteen. He painted and worked under his superior for the time being. Da Vinci’s teacher and mentor was Verrocchio, who was very famous at the time. At age twenty he left his mentors workshop and started his own.
Leonardo painted the Mona Lisa between 1503 and 1506. It is a painting of Lisa Gherardini, wife of cloth merchant Francesco del Giocondo. They did not keep the painting however, Leonardo’s assistant Salai took it back to Italy. The painting ended up in France in The Palace of Versailles with King Louis XIV. Then the painting was owned by Napoleon, then moved to the Louvre.
Leonardo’s Mona Lisa is considered one of the first Italian works of its kind in that in focuses so intensely on the sitter in a half length portrait. Da Vinci used a simple triangular design in the painting. Her hands, face, and breasts have the same light reflecting of them. The Facial expression is the focal point of the painting. The painting was meant to make the viewer focus primarily on the facial expression and not the background or her posture. The facial expression consequently is what draws audiences to the painting. The smile depicted on her face is supposed to represent the concept of happiness.
Since I am no art buff, so I cannot lie and say this painting has a significant effect on my life. However I am a person who can appreciate beauty. This painting had no appeal to me once I started this paper, but as I furthered my research, the painting grew on me. The facial expression really is mysterious and something to behold. Leonardo Da Vinci is a genius that history has never forgotten and perhaps never will.

Salah said...

Salah said...

UZL829 said...

Louise Bourgeois was born in Paris in 1911. She studied art at various schools there, including the Ecole du Louvre, Académie des Beaux-Arts, Académie Julian, and Atelier Fernand Léger. In 1938, she emigrated to the United States and continued her studies at the Art Students League in New York. Although she started out as a painter, by the 1940s she had turned her attention to sculptural work, for what she is now recognized by.
One of her main influences is the many european artists who immigrated to the United States after World War II.

Bourgeois’s early sculpture was composed of groupings of abstract and organic shapes, often carved from wood. By the 1960s she began to work in rubber, bronze, and stone, and the pieces themselves became larger, more referential to what has become the most common theme of her work which was her childhood. She has famously stated “My childhood has never lost its magic, it has never lost its mystery, and it has never lost its drama.” Her work is very symbolic of her relationship with her parents and the role sexuality played in her early family life to better understand and relive that part of her life. The shapes that her pieces take are full of sexuality and innocence.

One of her greatest artworks is her famous "Maman" sculpture. The sculpture, which resembles a spider, is over 30ft high, with a sac containing marble eggs. Besides the stainless steel version on long-term loan to the- Tate Modern, London-, there are seven bronze casts, located at:
-National Gallery of Canada, (Ottawa)
-State Hermitage museum, (St. Petersburg)
-Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
-Mori Art Museum, Roppongi, Tokyo
-Samsung Museum of Modern Art (Leeum), Seoul
-Jardin des Tuileries, Paris
-Havana, Cuba

My opinion about this great piece of art, is that is very beautiful, and very articulate. It truly shows off the style of Louise Bourgeois and her great sense of imagination. What I like most about this sculpture is that she was also able to portray how she felt in her childhood, and how she felt about her mom and dad and the care tat they took of her. Its fascinating to see that not only is one of these sculptures in our own BACKYARD!!!(St.Petersburg), there are seven other scuptures around the world as well. I would definately love to go see this sculpture personally one day.



Angela Mansingh said...

"I have but one desire as a painter – that is to paint what I see, as I see it, in my own way, without regard for the desires or taste of the professional dealer or the professional collector."- Georgia O’Keeffe

Georgia Totto O'Keeffe was born in a farmhouse on a dairy farm in Wisconsin, November 15, 1887. When she was in the 8th grade, she was asked what she was going to do when she grew up. Her immediate reply was "...I am going to be an artist!"--” By the age of 16 Georgia had 5 years of private art lessons at various schools. A principal from one particular school said this about Georgia: "When the spirit moves Georgia, she can do more in a day than you can do in a week"
Georgia graduated high-school in 1905, moved to Chicago to attend art-school, quit that, and then moved to New York to attend another art school and quit that too. It was between these two schools that she learned imitative realism. She moved back to Chicago where she took a job as a commercial artist and lost all desire to create. Over the next 12 years, Georgia moved from state to state, teaching art at various institutions, trying to find her niche. In 1917, Georgia had her first solo exhibit in New York, at a friends’ studio. Up until this point, Georgia had painted primarily with watercolors. Now that she was in New York, and exposed to many new artists and photographers, she gained new inspirations and ideas and began painting with oil. By the mid-1920s, O'Keeffe began making large-scale paintings of natural forms at close range, as if seen through a magnifying lens. This was the same time that O'Keeffe had become known as one of America's most important artists.
By the late 1920’s, O’Keeffe felt a need to travel again. She headed out west to New Mexico, which would change her life forever. It was there she found a connection to the earth; to life. She fell in love with the landscaping and natural wonders of the deserts in New Mexico. Some of her best known works were inspired and created here. O’Keeffe traveled between New Mexico and New York for 20 years until finally settling in New Mexico in 1949.
Georgia O’Keeffe continued working in oil until the mid–1970s. She worked in pencil and watercolor until 1982 and produced objects in clay from the mid-1970s until two years before her death in 1986, at the age of 98. Today, she is best known for her modernist style of painting, mainly flowers, which have an organic, sexual mystique about them, as well as her depictions of the American West.

I chose to explore The Cliff Chimneys, one of her paintings inspired in New Mexico. It was created in 1938 and is oil on canvas. I found it interesting that all of her landscape art appears almost abstract, but all were actual depictions of tangible places. This painting in particular resembles the actual location very much. She included the “chimneys” on top of the mountain, all of the small bushes along its’ cliffs and the bright green trees surrounding the base. What I like the most about what she did, is that she painted this scene exactly how she interpreted it. She added shadows, colors, clouds and smoother lines. Basically, she added a new, original life to the rock formation, and expressed it on her canvas. I also noticed her “signature” strokes, nestled into the side of the mountain. It appears as though she created a vagina, possibly two, on the side of the rock. It looks like a vagina, with two red lips and a deep fissure to separate. It is unexpected in this scene, yet balanced by the phallic-like chimneys, towering over the great mountain. My opinion of this painting is that it is beautiful and light. I feel transported to the scene, just looking at it. It challenges my senses, in a way that I can almost smell the colors and hear the lines. I believe that O’Keeffe was a very sexual woman, and chose to see sex everywhere she looked; especially nature, and I thank her for that.
1. O'Keeffe, The Life of an American Legend; Jeffrey Hogrefe; Bantam; 1994
3. (Photo of The Cliff Chimneys)

Lisa Griswold said...

Albrecht Dürer: Painter of Portraits

Albrecht Dürer was born on May 21, 1471 in Nuremberg, Germany. He is known and regarded as Germany’s greatest Renaissance artist. As an artist that used many different mediums, I still am intrigued with his self-portraits. When I look at the four self-portraits of Albrecht Dürer, I see different themes in each of them.

His father, a goldsmith, Albrecht Dürer the Elder, moved to Nuremberg from Hungary in 1455. As was customary, his son began working with his father and learning the goldsmith trade as a young boy. He created his first self-portrait when he was only 13 years old in 1484 and is silverpoint on paper. Though similar to a pencil drawing, the shading gives the young boy depth and perception through shading. Dürer is so young his drawing, yet he shows a perspective older than his years. The self-portrait draws attention to the face and large eyes, then to his hand with one finger pointing. His closing is loose and without detail and he wears a plain, soft hat. His face is fuller that in his adult self-portraits. This work is often overlooked compared to his later three self-portraits.

The Web Gallery of Art has a biography with links to the artwork of Dürer. He traveled as under an apprenticeship arranged by his father with Michael Wohlegemut, a painter and woodcut illustrator. His travels may have taken him to the Netherlands and Switzerland, where he learned the art of woodcuts. He also designed book illustrations and his second self-portrait, often considered his first. According to references listed below, he used mirrors to paint all of his self-portraits.

His second self-portrait is oil on linen and was painted in 1493 when he was 22 years old. The colors seem subdued to me and there is no background; just a dark color. He is young, clean shaven, is wearing a white shirt with pink ribbons on it and a tasseled hat. He holds a thistle in his hands. The thistle and the tassel are similar, tie him to nature, and lend an air of reality to the work. Since young people are often filled with their own self importance and I wonder if the lack of background in the portrait is to inform the viewer that he is the subject of the painting and “it’s all about me.”

In about 1494, Dürer made his first journey to Italy. The Italian influence shows in his later work for about ten years. He saw works from the masters of the time in central Italy and learned about the human body in motion and how to articulate the lines of the body. During this time, he painted another self-portrait in 1498 at the age of 26, oil on panel. The colors in this work are more vibrant and his clothing seems modern for the time. The fabric is white with black, white, and gold trim. His hat is also black and white. His hair is very long and he has a beard and moustache. His eyes are looking to the far left, and seem to be focusing on something that makes me want to look to my left to see what he is looking at. To the right of his head, is a window with the view of the countryside. I wonder if the view out the window is of an Italian countryside at the time he was visiting Italy. Maybe is suggests that he values the techniques he is learning from the masters of the Renaissance era and 26 year old Dürer is right in the middle of the rebirth of thought, art, and science.

Dürer returned to Nuremberg in about 1495, but did made a second trip to Italy from 1505 to 1507. While in Nuremburg, he painted another self-portrait in 1500 at the age of 28, and is oil on panel. On page 469 of our text, A World of Art, Fifth Edition, shows this portrait. In this painting, Dürer is looking straight ahead, as though looking directly at the viewer. He is touching the fur collar on his clothing with his right hand. Again, his hair is very long and face is bearded. He looks like Jesus in the painting. The background is stark and black, highlighting the light skin and piercing, brown eyes. There is a marked improvement in the expressive lines of his face and hands. He has a serious expression on his face, much like many depictions of Jesus. The text notes that he is not meaning to be Christ, but that he is spiritual and believes his talents are from God. He created many religious paintings and altar pieces, and was hired for various projects throughout his art career. Dürer was originally a Catholic, but later sympathized with Martin Luther and the protestant movement.

I am also fascinated with the way Albrecht Dürer signed his work. He used distinct monogram and usually wrote something on all of his paintings and drawings. The placement of his initials in the monogram is beautiful, and is sometimes part of the engraving, or in the middle of the painting on either side of his head, as in the self-portrait in 1500. The background is black, but the monogram and signature are both done a light, almost white color.

In closing, Dürer was an artist of many mediums. Germans were considered craftsmen at that time, and Dürer did not agree with this view of German artisans. He seemed to become more dignified, although he never appears happy, as time passes through his self-portraits. He reminds me of the film we watched about Jackson Pollock and the immense pressure he placed on himself to produce innovative representations of his feelings in a tangible form. Dürer, like Pollock, seems very serious to me. In all of the work I looked at, they were all serious and none of the subjects seemed happy. To me, the value of art is not only monetary, but in the joy is brings to the creator and the audience.


1. Sayre, H. M. (2007). A World of Art, Fifth Edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

2. Wikimedia Foundation, Wikipedia, Albrecht Durer, (last updated July 17, 2008).

3. Emil Kren and Daniel March, Web Gallery of Art, Albrecht Durer,, (last updated October 1996).

4. Nicolas Pioch, The Web Museum, AlbrechtDurer, , (last updated June 19, 2006).

Jason Raimondo said...

In the 1600's the popularity and potency of Catholicism had been greatly challenged by the Protestant movement (Reformation), of Martin Luther. In an ingenious attempt to rebound in the public eye, the Papacy transformed Rome into a city of great Cathedrals, sculptures,and art of a religious nature. This desire to stay at the forefront of religious art and architecture immortalized Rome as the center for religious works in the Christian world.
The art, architecture, fountains and sculpture would incorporate "various media to achieve the most theatrical effects."("A World of Art," Henry Sayer pg 478.) This new period in art would be known as the Baroque, and the undisputed heavyweight champion of the Baroque was and is without a doubt Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680).
Bernini approached Michelangelo in his omnicompetence. He sculpted, worked as an architect, painted, wrote plays, and staged spectacles. It has been said that Bernini's architecture is on the conservative end of the Baroque spectrum, but to fully understand the man's works we should observe the works of his greatest influences.
Gianlorenzo Bernini was trained to sculpt by his father Pietro Bernini. Though Gianlorenzo was Roman, his father had been from Florence. It has been said that Gianlorenzo better than anyone else understood the dual heritage of Rome being both empire and papacy. Gianlorenzo preferred Hellenistic sculpture as well as Roman copies of Hellenistic sculpture. It is from these classic masterpieces that Bernni is said to have gained his fluid and dynamic style. When it came to gaining stylistic musings from paint, Bernini looked to the works of Carvaggio, the Corracci, and Guido Reni.
Bernini originally worked in the Late Mannerist tradition but rejected the "contrived tendencies" of this style. "Mannerism encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo." (Wikipedia: Mannerism) Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities.
The definition of Mannerism, and its many phases, continue to be debated among many art historians. For example, some scholars have applied the label of Mannerism to certain early modern forms of literature.
By 1624 he had adopted an expression that was passionate and full of emotional and psychological energy. His figures are caught in a transient moment from a single viewpoint, bursting into the spectator's space. This is the period in which Bernini and his sculpture really seem to blossom into greatness.
A prime example of Bernini's prowess with Baroque sculpture came to be around 1644, with the creation of "The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa."
In the time of Saint Theresa is was not uncommon for devoutly religious people to fast for days while sitting in one room and praying until they achieved a holy vision. For Saint Theresa, her vision was one that is filled with sexual undertones. She claimed that in her youth, while she lay in bed, she was visited by an angel who held in his hand a golden arrow with a flaming point. She said that the angel began thrusting the golden arrow into her heart causing feelings of both immense pain and joy. To Saint Theresa, this pain was her first hand physical encounter with the pleasure that only god could provide.
For a commission of today's equivalent to 120,000 dollars, Gianlorenzo Bernini immortalized this moment in Saint Theresa's life with his most famous and controversial sculpture "The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa."
The work is displayed in Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria Rome. It took Bernini from 1645 until 1652 to complete the sculptures, which consist of two pieces. The main piece is "The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa", which is a truely masterfully planned and executed sculpture. Centered between two spectacular green marble pillars is Saint Theresa with a flowing garment on. She is mounted by a smiling freindly looking male angel who is holding a golden arrow, and appears to be preparing to thrust it into her heart. Theresa seems to be in a state of sexual climax, or perhaps just a moment of divine bliss that can be best related to a woman's sexual climax. Her left leg dangles limp, her left arm is braced against her bed, and her head is tilted back so as to look up towards the heavens. Beaming down onto the Saint and the angel are rays of light made of gilded bronze. The carving of the sculpture is masterful. The poses are original, and daring for a religious piece of its day.
Beyond our view in this piece is a hidden window which casts light into the scene from above. It provides a truely heavenly aspect to this truely unusual scene. I like to imagine this piece being new, with the gilded bronze shining with the most brilliance and the marble all polished so as to project the light from its hidden source with the highest level of efficiency.
Is this whole story a metaphore for a sexual encounter? Is it a commentary on the divine moment when a woman is most likely to call god's name? Only Saint Theresa knows for sure if this is about God's warmth or sexual healing. But the interesting story provides us with much to talk about before we even see the sculpture. Some would say that this feature alone is what propells a lot of art into legendary status.
Just as interesting as the story, and the main piece is the secondary piece that Bernini placed in the same Chapel. "The Cornaro Faimily in a Theater Box", shows the family who had the works comissioned in constant observation of "The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa." They seem to be very lively, as if they are discussing something. Each of the four men pictured, are at different and realistic angles. It seems that from whatever angle you should approach this piece, you would be greeted by a different man's face.
Bernini's work in this case seems best defined as smooth, flowing, imaginative, realistic and religious. This is a generic sounding summary of very premium artistic creation, but the summary of the style of a man who was a child prodigy sculptor at 13, and worked until death almost 80 years later is probably best left broad.
Many people say that this sculpture is the greatest and most famous of all the Italian Baroque pieces. Just as many would also say that this is the greatest and most recognized of Bernini's works.
For me this was the most interesting sculpture that I had seen in person, and an ideal opportunity to learn about Bernini. Royalty, Popes, and Europe's elite all knew that Bernini had a rare and special talent in art. His paintings, plays, sculptures, architecture and inventions were all the talk of Europe in the 1600's. He was an innovator with a slant towards classic beauty. In my opinion blending new innovations with classic elegance will never go out of style, and Gianlorenzo Bernini knew this well.

(For a picture click this link)

"A World of Art" by: Henry M. Sayre

"" The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa
(the above link is to an excellent commentary on this work)

C.Alexander3 said...

The American Painter and the figure of Abstract Painting during the expressionist movement..Jackson Pollock.Jackson was born in Cody, Wyoming in 1912, the youngest of five siblings.Pollock married Lee Krasner also an abstart painter but not that appealing. The two of them brought a house together in Long Island NY. Later on Jackson wanted to start a family but Lee didnt want to bring a child into poverty and abuse. Jackson began to see a woman named Ruth Kligman which later on became his girlfriend.Lee Krasner knew of this affair .He used an old barn as a studio where he could paint and be all alone basically being more focused. He once said that "he liked to do his work on the floor to feel more into it, and to be able work on all four sides to feel as the heart of the project. He began to study painting in 1929 at the Art Students' League, New York. Where he worked with Regionalist painter Thomas Hart Benton.Before Jackson was deeply into the abstract paintings he was being influenced by Mexican Muralist painters(Orozco, Rivera, Siqueiros).1938 to 1942 he made works of art for the Federal Art Project. The mid 1940's he was painting in a abstract manner, and the `drip and splash' emerged with some amplitude in 1947. Instead of using the regular traditional easel he used the floor or the wall and poured and dripped his paint from a can. Sometimes giving it a heavier texture to make is seem as `sand, broken glass or other foreign mixture. He was notoriously supported but ctitiscized by many, was subject to very large doses of abuse and negligence.Underneath it all jackson had many problems, he lived an unhappy life and was subject to alchol abuse. He would get "wasted".Its been said that many of his painting were influenced by Native American "sand" painting. Jackson never named his painting, he would just number all of them.Pollock painted nothin in 1955, after dealing with alcoholism most of his life, It came to an end when he dies in a car accident due to drunk driving.Some of Jackson Pollock's best work's were
"Male and Female"
. " "The Mural"
"The She-Wolf"
"The Tea Cup Collection Frieder Burda "


deehawk said...

As stated by Michelangelo “In every block of marble I see a statue as plain as though it stood before me, shaped and perfect in attitude and action. I have only to hew away the rough walls that imprison the lovely apparition to reveal it to the other eyes as mine see it."
Michelangelo Buonarroti was born on March 6, 1475 in the village of Caprese, Italy. He was one of the most important artists of the Italian Renaissance, a period when the arts and sciences flourished. Michelangelo became an apprentice to prominent Florentine painter, Domenico Ghirlandaio at the age of 12, but soon began to study sculpture instead. He attracted the attention and patronage of Lorenzo de Medici who was ruler of Florence until 1492.
He began to work on the colossal figure of "David" in 1501, and by 1504 the sculpture (standing at 4.34m/14 ft 3 in tall) was in place outside the Palazzo Vecchio. Traditionally, David was portrayed after his victory, triumphant over Goliath. Both Verrochio's and Donatello's David are depicted standing over Goliath's severed head. Michelangelo has depicted David before the battle. Davis is tense, but not so much in a physical as in a mental sense. The slingshot he carries over his shoulder is almost invisible, emphasizing that David's victory was one of cleverness, not sheer force. He believed this was the moment of David's greatest courage.
When the statue of David was placed on the square in front of the city hall (where you can now find a copy), the people of Firenze immediately identified with him, as a cunning victor over superior enemies. To them, David was a symbol representing fortezza and ira, strength and anger. The statue became a symbol for the new republic that had replaced Medici rule. The statue symbolizes freedom for the city. Supporters of Medici used to stone the sculpture, and guards had to be hired to keep it safe. Nudity was also a problem and a skirt of copper leaves was used to spare the public from being offended. David's character traits are more important than his victory over Goliath, which is why Michelangelo depicted him before the battle, strong-willed and ready to fight.
This sculpture is very detailed and shows a lot of texture. He took the time to carve lifelike qualities into cold, hard marble. The right hand is actually bigger than the left which draws attention to the stone he is holding, the power of his posture, his intention, and the drama about to unfold for David. The nudity of Michelangelo's David is a possible interpretation of the biblical text describing the biblical hero and future king in the moment before the start of the fight with Goliath. David's nudity facing Goliath is explained as a result of verses from the bible 1 Samuel 17:38-39. Saul supplied David with a warrior's dress and David wore it. However he could not walk with it and therefore took it off.

Information taken from
Derrica hawkins

A&C Wedding said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
jmoores said...

While doing some research for a previous class, I came across a painting that really caught my interest for a few different reasons. Throughout the Renaissance period, most artworks seemed to have one strong central point and very few figures actually within the work. The piece I saw was The Wedding at Cana, completed in 1563 by Paolo Veronese which currently hangs in the Musée de Louvre in Paris. His mix of Renaissance and Mannerist ideals made this very elaborate oil on canvas piece unique and masterful in its own right. Its complexity and rich harmonious colors caught my personal attention.
Paolo Veronese (1528-1588) is considered a premier artist of the Venetian late Renaissance and is compared to the likes of the great Titian and Tintoretto. His most noted works are of biblical feasts and he is able to use colorful and dramatic style to portray beautiful architecture and imagery in his paintings. It was his mix of Mannerist and Renaissance styles and ideals that made him unique and well known. Of his works I saw, it is The Wedding at Cana that I believe really shows his talent.
The Wedding at Cana is a painting of just that, a wedding feast held in a courtyard, the central figure of the piece is actually Jesus, not the celebrating couple. This particular painting of Veronese’s is actually a depiction of when Jesus performs his first public miracle, the turning of water into wine. Apparently, the servants inform the guests they have run out of wine and Jesus asks them to fill the jugs up with water. When they continue to serve the contents of the jugs to the guests, it is found to be more wine.
This painting incorporates many elements that make it exquisite. The over one hundred figures of this piece are well spread out around the central figure, Jesus, making it a well-balanced, realistic portrayal. The sharp lines and aerial perspective of the work give the whole piece a sense of depth, as does the use of shade and sunlight. This creates bright and shaded areas that allow for the realistic scene of an outside event. The architecture itself is also balanced and unified with straight, sharp edges and the simple sculpture that sits atop one building, gives another great sense of depth. Throughout my research, I could not actually find the current value of this piece. However, it has to be a considerable amount considering it hangs near a piece incredibly famous and valuable, the Mona Lisa.
The Wedding at Cana is a complex masterpiece, a good reason in itself to pick such a work for analysis. Veronese’s use of color, form, perspective made me want to study it, analyze it, and understand it. Although the complexity did make the content a little hard to read, the ability to understand a supposed moment in history made me want to figure out this piece. It was intriguing to find a piece where figuring out all the fine details of the figures, both the essential and non-important to the work, was the priority, especially amongst times of artists who still only strived to create simpler, less complex paintings.

Works Cited

A&C Wedding said...

The artists only known to the world as Christo and Jeanne-Claude were said to be destined to be together from birth. The two were born within the same hour on the same day, June 13, 1935. Christo Vladimirov Javacheff was born in Gabrovo, Bulgaria, of a Bulgarian industrialist family. His art studies let him to places such as Sofia and Prague. Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon was born in Casablanca, Morocco, of a French military family. Jeanne-Claude studied Latin and philosophy in Tunis. The couple first met in Paris in 1958, while Christo was working on 'Packages and Wrapped Objects'. Their only child, Cyril, was born on May 11, 1960 and in 1964, the family made a home in New York City.

Christo and Jeanne-Claude front all expenses associated with their temporary art works. Funding comes partly from the sale of Christo's preliminary drawings and their early works from the 1950's and 1960's. They do not accept any contributions, grants or other financial assistance, preferring to make their artistic decisions without the influence any financial support might entail. Their project ‘The Gates’ came to a total of $26 million dollars. When asked why they choose to create only temporary public art, they responded “The temporary quality of the projects is an aesthetic decision. The works are temporary in order to endow the works of art with a feeling of urgency to be seen, and the love and tenderness brought by the fact that they will not last.”

When first proposed in 1979, ‘The Gates’ were only 12 feet tall, of a totally different design, and the first drawing was titled ‘The Thousand Gates’. The idea for The Gates first came to Christo and Jeanne-Claude in a period when many artists were working directly with the landscape. Within man-made landscapes a park has the ability to turn raw nature into theater. Central Park, the heart of a city of towers, is said to make one of the best stages of all. “In Christo and Jeanne-Claude’s melodramatic art-folly, there’s something grandiose, in a dreamy and narcissistically childlike way that particularly suits New York.” The original project was rejected in 1981, but the new design using 23 miles of the park’s walkways was approved in 2003 by Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg.

Like all of the couple’s visions, ‘The Gates’ was temporary. Sixteen days after the 7,500 gates were unveiled in February 2005; they were taken down and recycled, leaving only the memories for the millions who came to see them. After ‘The Gates’ was dismantled, I think people saw the park more clearly for a short time; possibly becoming more conscious of the meandering paths and more aware of the creativity of the park’s designer, Frederick Law Olmsted. Their current project is ‘Over the River,’ which would drape about seven miles of the Arkansas River in Colorado in translucent fabric panels. If achieved as scheduled in 2012, it would be 20 years after they began working on it.

After seeing their work in the book, I looked up more of Christo and Jeanne-Claude's art and I found one called 'Wrapped Walk Ways'. This was made in Loose Park, Kansas City, from 1977-1978; where they covered 2.7 miles of formal garden walkways and jogging paths in the same orange color fabric as some of their other works. The fabric they use is vibrant, sensual and tactile. Since it moves with the wind, as opposed to the static quality of bronze or steel; it gives me a feeling of tranquility and calmness like a cool autumn breeze. If you were to look at ‘The Gates’ as well as ‘Wrapped Walk Ways’ from an aerial view; they seem to both show a passage of peace and harmony in a golden, orange color such as that of the yellow brick road into the city of Oz within the story.

'Wrapped Walk Ways'
'The Gates'
Aerial View of 'The Gates'
'Over the River'


- Amanda Young

Joshua Myers said...

What does a spiral represent? Perhaps it’s a beginning and an end, the circle of life or even the model for the cosmos. Robert Smithson captures this complexity in an earthwork titled “Spiral Jetty.” Smithson was born in Rutherford, New Jersey and was an earthworks artist encompassed and infatuated by nature and its elements. The jetty is a creative collision of location, material, construction and size. He chose the Earth as the medium for his masterpiece.
The spiral is located near Rozel Point on the northeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Smithson chose this site due to the blood color of the water caused by algae blooms and bacteria that flourish in the lake. He also chose this location because it is near the “Golden Spike Monument,” which is where the first transcontinental railroad was built. The jetty was pretty simplistic to design after the decision of location. Material was the next design decision.
Secondly, the material used to erect the earthwork mainly consisted debris, mud aided in the easy erection and construction process. Combining the material was an easy task as well. After deciding the material it was time to build.
He began work in April of 1970. The piece was financed by a $9,000 grant from the Virginia Dawn Art Gallery of New York. The total construction time was a measly six days. He hired a contractor with very little heavy equipment in order to spiral the 6,550 tons of material into the American Dead Sea. When construction was complete it was a sizeable sensation an addition to the Great Salt Lake.
The overall length of the site was 1500 feet long with a road size of 15 feet wide which spirals counterclockwise into the lake. The water was low during construction due to a drought although, the water level returned shortly after the spiral was completed and swallowed the jetty for three decades. Due to climate change the earthwork reemerged in 1999 only to be swallowed once again in 2005. The size of the structure can still be seen from an aerial view. Smithson’s “Spiral Jetty” is spectacular to study and the work invokes a sense of creativity to all who encompass the earthwork.
Overall, this piece of art represents serenity and sanctity in a seemingly unsustainable climate. In 1973, three short years after the completion of the project, Smithson died in a plane crash in Texas while working on another earthwork titled the “Amarillo Ramp.” He died doing what he loved. I really enjoy looking at jetty because it is ever ambiguous because if the elements it’s exposed to. The jetty is a sublime subject that belongs to all who reside on earth and needs no provenance or proof of production. It could stand for so many different themes such as life and death, the beginning and end or even the model of the cosmos. Regardless of its meaning, all who witness this work of art and its beauty will be swallowed by the vortex of the “Spiral Jetty.”

chelle324 said...

He was a famous,and some say, most successful portrait painter of the 1800’s. He was known as “the Van Dyck of our times” Who is John Singer Sargent? He was an American born in Florence, Italy. He studied the alla prima method under Carolus-Duran in Paris. This method was very unconventional in that time. Instead of drawing and then underpainting, Sargent was taught to paint directly on the canvas using proper placement of his brush and tones of paint. He practiced his own unique form of realism. His style was also known as the “Old Master” style where he paints halftones backwards to darks and then forward to lights.
Sargent’s work was first shown publicly at the Paris Salon which started his career of being commissioned to do portraits. He did portraits for the higher class, artist friends including Claude Monet, and eventually even two presidents: Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.
John Sargent’s painting Portrait of Madame X was his personal favorite and one of his most popular best works. This painting also changed the course of his career when it became scandalous in Paris. Sargent ended up keeping the painting in his studio for the next 21 years.
After this incident, Sargent decided to move to London, England where he began to paint impressionistic. Impressionism is used to record a scene or object accurately and realistically using small paint strokes to show actual reflected light. Many believe this was not a good move for Sargent. One person said “In none of the work after 1884 do we sense any urgency of feeling or the presence of a soul.” In his later years, Sargent painted mostly landscapes and sculpted as well.
Of all his pieces, My favorite painting was Lady Agnew of Lochnaw. Gertrude Vernon’s, also known as Lady Agnew, husband commissioned Sargent to create the painting after inheriting the baronetsy and estates of Lochnaw in Galloway. This piece made Lady Agnew a sort of icon for beauty in society. In the portrait, I love the way her skin, dress, and the chair behind her flow together in a way that you really have to stare at the painting to see where one ends and the next begins. The entire piece is soft on your eyes, not harsh, and intriguing at the same time. It’s almost as if Lady Agnew is trying to seduce John Sargent with her eyes and her body language. Something about it draws me in.
Like many artists, John Singer Sargent’s works have become more valuable as the years have gone by. $23.5 million U.S. dollars sold in december of 2004 was the highest price ever paid for a John Singer Sargent piece.

A world of Art, 2007. Henry m. Sayre
Frida kahlo the movie, 2002. Salma Hayek

Noting she was a controversial and well noted painter, Frida, a Mexican painter, has achieved tremendous popularity amongst western culture as well as the eastern culture. Frida Khalo is defined by using vibrant colors and having a style that was influenced by indigenous cultures of her native country. Not only did she have influences from Mexico but she also painted in forms of Realism, Symbolism, and Surrealism. These other influences come to play a big role when she starts move forth into more European as well Mexican. Most commonly did she paint self-portraits that symbolically expressed her pain from her tragic accident when young and the ambiguity she had for her own sexuality.
While riding a bus in Mexico in the year 1925, Frida was the victim when the bus collided with another vehicle which consequently left her suffering throughout the rest of her life. The following injuries are agonizing : broken spinal column, a broken collarbone, broken ribs, a broken pelvis, eleven fractures in her right leg, a crushed and dislocated right foot, and a dislocated shoulder. As well as being almost crushed to death, she also had an iron handrail pierce through abdomen reaching her uterus, which led to her infertility.
Eventually after being in a cast for several months, Frida Kahlo recovered from her injuries and regained her sustainability to walk. Although she had recovered from her wounds, she had not fully recovered from her serious injuries. For the remainder of her life, she was tormented by relapses of extreme pain, usually from her broken spinal column. For months at a time, this tormenting pain came to the point in which it often left her bedridden and confined to a room. Aside from the fact that she was in agony from these pains, she underwent as many as thirty-five operations; again as a result of her broken spinal column and legs.
hint... some things to include in your reflection: background info on artist, context (what factors played a role in the creation of this work?), content (what is the meaning?), line, space, color, value (what is this work worth?)
This leads to the reason she started painting, her father had given her as a gift a set of paint and paintbrushes. Alone for months, Frida Kahlo started painting. When she was able to walk she met Famous Mexican muralist, Diego Rivera. Throughout her young artist days, Frida has often approached Diego Rivera, whose work she admired, asking him for advice about pursuing a career in art. Records show he immediately recognized her talent and her unique expression as an artist with a unique talent. Later, Frida and Diego developed an intimate relationship with eventually led to marriage in 1929.
In 1939, Frida Kahlo painted one of her most telling self-portraits, The Two Fridas (Las Dos Fridas). This painting depicts the traditionally Mexican minded and dressed Frida. Most importantly this painting depicts the hurt and exposed Frida hurt and exposed, sitting next to another obvious Frida. This Frida is holding the right hand of the independent and strong Frida, who is obviously the protector of the weaker, more traditional Frida. What is visible are both of Frida’s hearts, exposed to serve a purpose; the heart of the ‘traditional’ Frida is cut and torn open while the other remains whole. The torn heart has a severed main artery coming down to the right hand of the traditional Frida. Surgical pincers are shown to express the anguish of trying to stem the flow of blood, but it still it continues to drip down onto her white dress, forming an expanding pool of blood. On the other side, the heart of the ‘strong’ Frida, is shown to be intact and feeding lifeblood through a connecting vein to the weaker, traditional Frida.
This leads to the reflection of wondering and trying to answer questions such as finding the reasons why the ‘traditional’ Frida is in such a disturbing state and what has allowed the ‘stronger’ Frida to remain not only unscathed, but in a position to feed and protect the other? It seems obvious that there were not only expressions of pain but an intimate look at her inner thoughts. This is one of many artworks which created a visual diary of a lifetime of physical and emotional pain. Frida Kahlo is an example of a strong woman who left open evidence of her passionate individuality through her shocking, highly recognized paintings. All she endeared to be was a devoted wife to an abusive husband, and a good mother. Each person, including me, is affected by a lifetime of individual experiences. Therefore, what an individual does with those experiences truly indicates what kind of character one has. Frida Kahlo is a good example of one’s life experiences being used to strengthen a certain individual.
Frida Kahlo lived through painful years, yet she proved to be one who would not live in conformance to the social expectations of her time and culture. The strong Frida in Kahlo’s portrait, The Two Fridas is the woman she became when she realized that society's overall expectations were unreachable and unrealistic. The injured heart does not necessarily convey any physical disability; this instead lays the ground for a woman who wears torn and stained traditional clothes and has a shattered heart exposed; this is due to the distress caused by an appearance expected to live. Consequently, the traditional Frida’s saving grace is that the strong Frida recognizing these unrealistic demands for what they needed to be. IN conclusion, what developed is the Frida Kahlo that people have proudly been able to hold up as an icon of strength, leadership, and jagged individualism.

Dan said...

Leonardo da Vinci was one of the most renowned artists of all times. He was known specifically as, "The Renaissance Man," because his greatest of achievements were during that period of time in history. Even though he was best known for his paintings he was accomplished in other fields as well, such as: mathematician, inventor, engineer, anatomist, sculptor, botanist, musician, and writer. Although, he went on to be a famous artist in his own time.
Leonardo started his work as a artist at the age of 14, as an apprentice to a great artist of that time, Andrea di Cione, also known as, Verrocchio. Leonardo was not only exposed to skills like: painting, sculpting, and drawing, but some other skills he was allowed to learn was: drafting, chemistry, metallurgy, metal working, plaster casting, leather working, mechanics and carpentry. He helped Verocchio on his work, "The Baptism of Christ," and may have been a model for Verrocchio's other works like: The bronze statue of David. At the age of twenty, Leonardo was considered a master by the Guild of St. Luke, which was a guild of artists at that time. He went on to become a great artist and was contracted to do several works such as, “The Last Supper.” As he got older he spent his last years of his lifetime in the Clos Luce, manor close to the king’s royal Chateau Amboise.
Leonardo had not only and interest in art, but science, particularly anatomy, which came through in his drawing, "The Vitruvian Man." This drawing shows Leonardo's passion for the correlation of art and science through proportion. He believed to unlocking the secrets to the universe, you had to unlock the secrets of the human body. His drawing was drawn completely to scale using nine ways of measurement used in that time period. The drawing itself can be seen as symmetry of the human body, and also by the whole universe as well. The pose with the arms straight out and the feet together is seen as the superimposed square. On the other hand, the "spread-eagle" pose is seen to be in the superimposed circle. Some believe that the square is to represent the material world, and the circle to relate to the spiritual world, and how he tried to prove the coexistence of both. You can interpret many different things from this drawing. For example, on the surface it is very clear that this was drawn to show the perfect balance or proportion of man, but some people believe that there is more than meets the eye. Some people believe it to be a prediction of the future. By that I mean, some people show believe that this drawing is to show of when the “perfect man” would have been born. By perfect man I mean where the physical body meets in perfect harmony with the material body.
Leonardo's knowledge in diverse fields of study allowed him to take on multiple view points from those fields, and come up with a conclusion on how they are related (or prove how they are related.) This drawing to me, explemplies Leonardo's true passion in life, to find where we came from. By trying to explain the human body, he thought he could explain the universe. This interesting, minute details is what attracted me to the drawing in the first place, and sparked my curiosity in the interpretation of his drawings. His work portrays real events in the history of not just Christianity, but humankind as well. The content of his work was so profound that it is no wonder why he is seen as one of the best painters of all time.

Danielle said...

The great painter that I chose for my midterm is probably my most favorite of all. My love and obsession for this type of impressionist art and all of his works have gone on for many years since I was an early teenager. His paintings are very magical and they take me to a whole different world. I have collected several things, prints, books, planners, replicas, address books, etc. for quite some time. His works really mean a lot to me. His name is Claude Oscar Monet. He was born on November 14, 1840 in Paris, France. He died in Giverny, France, on December 5, 1926, at the age of 86. He painted several paintings that have become very famous. His future wife and mother of his two children, Camille Doncieux, was the subject of several of his paintings. Monet met Camille when she was very young. Monet and Camille had their first child, Jean, in 1867. Later, in 1870, Monet finally married her. His father and his aunt were not present at the wedding because they were very unhappy that he was marrying someone so much younger than him. They also felt, in a way, that he did not respect her as much as he should have. In 1878, Camille gave birth to their second child, Michel. Soon Camille's health deteriorated and she ultimately passed at the young age of 32 on September 5, 1879. Some of the paintings that she was painted in were "The Woman in the Green Dress," "The Cradle, Camille with Jean, 1867," "Camille Monet und ihr Kind," "Camille on her Death Bed," "Woman with a Parasol," "Camille on the Beach," "Women in the Flowers," "The Red Kerchief: Portrait of Camille Monet," "Woman in a Garden," "Madame Monet in a Japanese Costume," "Camille Monet at Work," and many, many others. After his wife died, he was absolutely devastated. There was speculation that he was having an affair with another woman, but that is just speculation. After he dealt with her death and some depression, he set forth to create some of the greatest works that he had ever painted. In the early 1880s, Monet began to document the French countryside through many paintings of landscapes and seascapes. In 1883, Monet rented a large house with some land that also had a barn. He used the barn as his workshop and the land served as the inspiration for so many different paintings. Monet also traveled to the Mediterranean to paint other paintings that would go into his series of works. He chose to paint landmarks, landscapes, and seascapes. His second wife, Alice, died in 1911. His first son, Jean, died in 1914. During the time when Alice died and Jean died is when Monet developed cataracts. Most of the paintings done during this time have a different hue over them because that was how he perceived what he was looking at. He did have some surgeries and after he recovered, he did go back and add some more life to some of his paintings. Monet died on December 5, 1926, from lung cancer. He is buried in the Giverny church cemetery in France. Monet had said that he wanted the funeral to be very simple, so only about fifty people came to it. His heirs gave his home and garden to the Academy of Fine Arts that is part of the Institut de France in 1966. In 1980, the Foundation Claude Monet opened the doors to his home and garden. Tourists from all over the world come to his home in Giverny, France to see objects from Monet's life as well as his collection of Japanese woodcut prints.

Possibly my most favorite painting of his is "Poppies Blooming" which he painted in 1873. A close second is Vétheuil in the Fog, which he painted in 1879 , or any painting that has to do with the water lillies in his pond.

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